Pulling the strings of gene expression

Formation of small RNA ref. James D. & Glenna Mary C. F. Int. J. LifeSc. Bt. & Phar. Res. 2014

Formation of small RNA ref. James D. & Glenna Mary C. F. Int. J. LifeSc. Bt. & Phar. Res. 2014

There are many types of RNA:  some like messenger (m)  RNA are translated into proteins, transfer (t) RNA and ribosomal (r) RNA have a housekeping role during mRNA translation and small (s) RNAs are not translated into proteins but regulate various biological processes like biotic and abiotic stress responses. Small RNAs come in different forms, the best understood classes being small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs). Small RNAs play a critical role in regulating the interaction of pathogens with plants thereby providing innate immunity to plants. Plant miRNA have important functions in organ development such as leaf morphogenesis, floral organ identity and root development. They are also involved in feedback regulation in small RNA pathway and in directing some siRNAs biogenesis. Moreover, they are involved in various stress responses, such as oxidative, mineral nutrient, dehydration stress and even mechanical stress.

Click on the links to read more………

Mallory A.C. & Vaucheret H. Functions of microRNAs and related small RNAs in plants. Nature Genetics 2006. 38: S31 – S36.

Yang T. et al. Functional diversity of miRNA in plants. Plant Science 2007. 172: 423-432.

Großhans H. and Filipowicz W. The expanding world of small RNAs. Nature 2008.451:24.

Carthew R. W. & Sontheimer E. J. Origins and mechanisms of miRNAs and siRNAs. Cell 2009.136(4): 642–655.

Guleria P. et al. Plant small RNAs: biogenesis, mode of action and their roles in abiotic stresses. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2011 Dec. 9(9): 183-199. DOI: 10.1016/S1672-0229(11)60022-3

Kruszka K. et al. Role of microRNAs and other sRNAs of plants in their changing environments. Journal of Plant Physiology 2012. 169: 1664–1672.

James D.  and Gleena Mary C. F. The regulatory role of small RNAs in plant innate immunity. Int. J. LifeSc. Bt. & Pharm. Res. 2014. 3(1): 72-82.

Dolgosheina E. V. et al. Conifers have a unique small RNA silencing signature. RNA 2008. 14: 1508-1515.

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